This district is rich in black and white marble and iron reserves and used to be a summer pasture for surrounding villages. It was called “The Hill of the Rising Sun”. The district where numerous meadows, springs, mountains and forests are all near each other has strong potential for tourism. When a copper mine was put into operation here in the 19th century, the word “mine” became a geographical name in the language of the local population. Although Gadabay was granted status as a district in 1930, most of the old-age population still calls the settlement where mines and factories are located a “mine”. Gadabay remained out of sight both under tsarist and Soviet rule. Locals often cite the saying “out of mind, out of sight”, regretting that this factor prevented their development. I think this makes Gadabay attractive and different from other places: it has remained out of sight, in other words, clean and pure. The people of Gadabay call their district “a land mullahs and taboos keep away from”.

• Note

The distance between Baku and Gada­bay is 444 km. It has a 123 km border with Armenia in the west and southwest. Gadabay is located in the median and high zones of the Small Caucasus Moun­tains. The highest mountains are Gosha­bulag (3,549 m), Gojadagh (3,317 m) and Garaarkhaj (3,063 m). The district has an arid climate. It has moderate hot sum­mers and cold winters. Gadabay has a dense network of rivers and forests with a total area of 30,500 ha.When you first visit Gadabay, you will not see anything eye-catching here. The district centre is so small and tedious that you want to leave it immediately. Therefore, before vi­siting the district, you should carry out some research into this place. This small research will be replaced with great impressions after you visit Gadabay. Thus, the following are the most important tips about this charming land.

• Mineral waters

Gadabay boasts numerous Narzan-like springs. The district has an average of 26 well-known springs. The most famous springs are Narzan (the villages of Slav­yanka, Kichik Garamurad and Soyudlu), Turshsu (Galakand), Mormor (the village of Mormor) and Turshsu (Shinikh). The people of Gadabay call these medicinal springs a real remedy. In summer, you can see long queues near these springs. People from surrounding districts and holiday-makers take litres of water from here.

• Gold mine

Residents of Gadabay describe them­selves as “poor people living on gold”. The history of copper extraction goes centuries back in the district which is known for its precious metal deposits. Archaeological excavations showed that residents of this region used cop­per in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The rich iron reserves of the district were discovered in the 19th century. The ar­rival of foreigners in Gadabay is related to underground reserves here. In 1849, a Greek man Grigoris Mekhov and his friends came to Gadabay in search of treasures and after research and per­mission from the tsarist government, he began drilling and exploration work at local mines. German entrepreneurs who began building a factory in the moun­tains carried out a lot of work here. Un­til 1865, the copper extraction and pro­cessing industry was led by Hermann Tanker from Hanover and Simen Maric from Denmark. Subsequently, all shares were bought by the German brothers Werner and Walter Siemens.

Quotation “Gadabay is paradise on earth” Wolfman (German engineer and geologist, 1890)

• Grunfeld

Grunfeld is the name of the quarter populated by Germans who started to migrate here from 1819. A hospital bu­ilt here in the second half of the 19th century and houses and other buildings which stand out for their architecture still remain intact. A road covered with stones attracts attention in the settle­ment. The Germans who brought a lot of innovations here 130-140 years ago built a road using local stones in order to maintain the roads during rains and snowfalls. Many industrial buildings and houses belonging to the Germans were ruthlessly destroyed in the first years of Soviet rule. Germans no longer live in Grunfeld. Despite that, you feel like in a different world when you come here. A visit to this quarter, which has a comple­tely different aura, is a must.

• Bridges

The Germans who ran Gadabay copper mines for 50 years built dozens of brid­es here. The bridges were built because of railways. The first 28 km Gadabay- Galakand railway was built in the Transcaucasia in 1879 in order to establish communications between the copper-smelting factory and the mines. Since the territory was mountainous, bridges were essential in many places – over gor­ges and rivers. Only local stones were used to build them. In some places, they were forced to cut through rocks. They say that the Siemens brothers were very generous with regard to workers buil­ding the bridges and pay them a high salary. Most of the bridges have now been destroyed. The ones that survived are being protected as historical monuments. One of them attracts attention with its beauty.

• Novosaratovka kəndi

Gədəbəyə ilk ruslar 1831-ci ildə ayaq basdı. Sürgün edilmiş 12 malakan ailə Novosaratovka kəndinə yerləşdi. Maraqlıdır ki, burada yaşayan ruslar Azərbaycan dilində Gədəbəy ləhcəsi ilə danışırlar. Malakan kəndlərinin memari quruluşu və məişəti elə fərqlidir ki, buralara yolu düşən Azərbaycanda olduğunu unudur. Ruslar köhnə adət – ənənələrini, mətbəxlərini, musiqilərini yaşadırlar. Bir yerə yığışıb qarmonda çalır, çastuşka oxuyur, rəqs edirlər. Biriləri gələndə, klassik rus hamamlarına od salır, qonaqlarını məşhur süpürgələriylə döyəcləyib yaxşıca çimdirirlər. Yayda Saratovkada ev kiralayıb qalmaq mümkündür.

• The Albanian temple

In the village of Saratovka, there is an Albanian temple built in 1535. The Molokans do not use these historical churc­hes, preferring to administer their reli­gious rites at home. They say that there used to be a stone inscription on this church. This stone inscription and the big cross in the church mysteriously disappeared later.

• Novoivanovka village

It is located several kilometres away from Saratovka. A Russian culture museum has been set up in the village which has an astonishing view. As a result of the social situation and Armenian agg­ression after the beginning of the policy of perestroika in 1985, people moved out of here. Currently, there are only 15- 20 Russians living in the village. Novoi­vanovka is the last population centre on Gadabay’s 123 km border with Armenia. The current residents of the village are Azerbaijanis who were expelled from Ar­menia as a result of Armenian aggressi­on in 1948-53 and in 1989.The previous name of Novoivanovka was Garapapag and some time later, Seyid­lar. There are place names like the Seyid Gorge and Garib Seyid here. The ancient tombstones in this area prove that the village was populated by Muslims

• History and historical monuments

It is believed that historical and cultu­ral monuments in Gadabay belong to the 12th-7th centuries BC. Various tools and jewels that have been found in the territory and belong to the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age prove that craftsmanship was well-developed in Gadabay at the time. Before the Mon­gol invasion in the 12th century, Gadabay Fortress already existed here. The ruins of the fortress were found in the sett­lement of Madan (mine) where copper was produced in the past century.

• Isgandar Fortress

This fortress in the Shinikh region is dif­ferent from others. It was built as a de­fensive fortress during the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the 1990s. Fierce fighting took place in the village located on the front line. In Turkic, the word Shinikh means a steep rock, while siniq means a place populated by Turkic tribes. Every inch of Gadabay soil is rich in historical monuments. In this land of fortresses, one fortress of national im­portance, 81 fortresses of world impor­tance and 24 fortresses of local impor­tance have been registered. This is what we saw during the five or six days that we spent here.

• Bell Church (5th-7th centuries)

The most famous historical monument in the village of Boyuk Garamurad be­longs to the 5th-7th centuries. It took its current shape after being restored in the 12th-13th centuries. Some sources say that it was built in 1634. We asked locals why they call it the Bell Church. It turned out that a huge iron bell used to hang from the ceiling of the church. The chimes of the bell could be heard around. In 1960, the bell mysteriously di­sappeared from the church. The villagers assume that it was stolen. Crosses and patterns of different forms are engraved on the walls of the temple. They say that this temple was used as a caravanserai.

• Qalaçalar

Gədəbəydə 30 qalaça var. Bir tona yaxın ağırlığı olan nəhəng daşlardan inşa edilmiş bu qalaçalar strateji əhəmiyyətlidir. Oğuz qalaçaları deyirlər. Qalaçaları tikən qədim türk tayfası nümayəndələri – oğuzlar ucaboylu, iri cüssəli olublar. Qəbrlərin ölçüləri bunu təsdiq edir. Qalaçalar müdafiə məqsədli gözətçi qurğularıdır. Kəşfiyyat məqsədi daşıyıb və böyük qalalarla gizli xəbərləşmə mərkəzi olub. Yüksəkdəki qalalardan fərqli olaraq qalaçalar iri ölçülü qaya parçalarından hörülüb. Döyüşlərdə həlak olanları eyni ərazilərdə dəfn ediblər.

• Səbətkeçməz qalaçası

Qalakənddən 2 km aralıdadır. Səbətkeçməz ya da Govdu qalaçası adlanır. Sıldırım qaya, çayın hündür sahili, dağın diki, təpə və sair kimi mənalara gəlir. Türk mənşəli sözdür. Təpədə qalaça olan yer kimi formalaşıb.

Chaldash village

In this name, chal means color. This name comes from the fact that colored stones and rocks have always looked grey here. The local population used to engage in saz art. Many “ashig” generations have lived in the village. The most famous historical monument in Chal­dash is an ancient building for religious rituals, which has been left over from the time of Caucasian Albania and belongs to the 5th-7th centuries. It is located in the courtyard of a village house. A hays­tack is kept inside the building. There are no inscriptions or symbols on its walls. The jugs mounted on the walls of the temple have been destroyed by treasure hunters.

• Potato 

When you say potato, the first thing is that springs to mind is Gadabay. It is the homeland of the potato which is re­garded as second bread. The country’s largest potato-growing district provides tonnes of potatoes every year. A local sort of potatoes stands out for its sweet taste. Local Gadabay potatoes are twice more expensive than potatoes imported from abroad. Potatoes here are sold not in kilograms, but in sacks and are used for cooking “kullama”. Small potatoes with thin peel are cleaned and placed in ashes. Then, they sprinkle them with salt and eat them with their peel.

• Old-timers

Clean air and stress-free and healthy lifestyle, as well as hard work at farms have turned the district into a land of old-timers. In Gadabay, there are more than 100 centenarians. A book has been written about them. Most of the old-timers live in Gadabay’s Shinikh area.

• Gadabay people

The people of the western region, including Gadabay, are called Ayrims. Alt­hough it means a slow and rude person, the etymology of the word has a comp­letely different explanation. Ayrim is the name of an ancient Turkic tribe living here. According to local residents, the Ayrims were bellicose Turks who refused to obey the shah and retreated into the mountains.According to another assumption, those who can tell the fortune by looking at the moon are called Ayrims. Ay (moon) is a heavenly body, rum is good news or informer. In the ancient Turkic langua­ge, rim meant foretelling, knowing and comprehending. In the Dada Gorgud epos, Ayrim meant a leader, an elder or God who foretold future events.The area used to be populated by ast­ronomers who studied heavenly bodies and astronomy. This is proved by old observatories here, but no scientific re­ search has been carried out at them.According to another theory, the Greeks who moved to Caucasian Albania in the 7th-8th centuries called locals “ay rum” because they did not understand their language. In Turkish, Rum is used as a synonym for Greek. Ayrim or ayrum me­ans brave, courageous and quick. In Sak culture, this word was used as meaning “a creative spirit”. Kipchak tribes used the word ay as a name meaning a hero. At the same time, Ayrim is mentioned as a tribe name in Oghuz eposes; it is rela­ted to the name of a tribe that lived in the mountains and foothills. History bo­oks describe ancient Albanians as white-faced, tall and beautiful people with fair hair and colored eyes. People who meet this definition live in Gadabay’s remote villages. As Germans and Slavs settled here in the 19th century, the ethnic com­position of Gadabay changed.

• Bloody Bridge

This name was given to the bridge be­cause of an incident. They say that a carriage transporting workers to mines overturned on this bridge and fell into an abyss. After this incident, which kil­led all the passengers of the carriage, people called this place a bloody brid­ge. It is so high that you feel dizzy when you look down. Those who are afraid of heights should not use the bridge. The bridge has seven arches and was built in a bow-shaped form.The two-arch bridge near the village of Chaldash and one-arch bridges in the Gadabay district centre are still intact. They were built so wide in order to allow phaetons to cross them. Today the brid­ges are used by cattle and pedestrians.

• Russians in Gadabay

In the middle of the 19th century, the tsar ordered the resettlement of some Christian sects to remote parts of the empire due to religious differences. According to another theory, it was in fact part of the covert policy of Russification in the empire. The Molokans who came to Azerbaijan and Gadabay settled in the villages of Slavyanka, Ivanovka and Sa­ratovka here. The Russian Slavic villages are very different from Azerbaijani villa­ges. The well-planned houses and com­fortable roads that were built about 150 years ago are still intact.

• Findigli

There used to be big nut gardens in a place called Findigli near Novosaratov­ka. An internal tourist route is being or­ganized to the territory which has been declared a zone of ecotourism. There is a multi-storey waterfall called Findigli here. You can get to the waterfall in two ways: though a higher mountain road, which is a short and easier way. Those who choose the lower road will have to walk in water for about 2 km. Although this road is difficult, it is still worth ex­periencing this “water adventure”. After a journey through the water and rocks, you finally reach the waterfall, hear its noise and watch its foamy natural water baths. You can even take a cold shower and bathe in a natural spa formed by the brisk water. It is a wonderful place to re­lax and picnic.One of Azerbaijan’s oldest cemeteries is located in Saratovka. Unique stone pic­tures draw attention here. Most of the graves belong to the early Middle Ages

• White Church

Novoivanovka’s most famous monu­ment is the White Mosque located seve­ral kilometres away from the village. Af­ter the Russians arrived here, they called it “Mechetka”. The monument’s original name is the White Church. The 4th century historical church is Gadabay’s most ancient Albanian church. Unlike other si­milar buildings, it is white, which is why it is called the White Church. The White Church was built from local riverbed sto­nes. Ethnographic symbols of the Alba­nian period are engraved on its stones.Although the vast territory of enigmatic beauty where the White Church is loca­ted has been declared a zone of ecoto­urism, there is no tourist infrastructure here. There is only a farm belonging to Haji Alakbar here. Fish is being cultiva­ted in three artificial lakes at the farm. The most delicious fish in Gadabay is the spotted fish. If you happen to travel to Novoivanovka, definitely visit Haji’s farm.

• Maiden’s Tower

The tower is a huge building located in the village of Soyudlu on the bank of the Shamkir River. The fortress, which is also known under the name of Namardgala, is situated in such a complicated geog­raphical area that it is almost impossible to get there. The height of the fortress, which is located on a steep rock, is up to 15 metres. It is possible to get to the fortress only in arid summer months when rainfalls are rare. During the ra­ins, the river bursts its banks and poses a threat, and it is impossible to get to the fortress. The Maiden’s Tower, which resembles Chiraggala in Davachi, is beli­eved to have been built under Sassanid rule in the 5th-6th centuries. The Sassanids and Caucasian Albania waged a war for this area which is rich in copper reserves. In order to fortify their positions along the Shamkir River during a military conf­lict, the Albanians built a defensive fort. Various sources say that the fortress was built in the 9th century and was regarded as one of the strongest installations in the 12th century Atabay state.

• Giziltorpag village

They say that the village is called so because its land is very productive. An ancient Albanian monastery is located in the woods 1-2 km from the village. When you walk around, you notice that some parts of the monuments have been damaged. The monuments were damaged by those who searched for treasures in the belief that jugs of gold had been buried in the foundation of the temple. It is recommended that you visit the Giziltorpag waterfall which is situated in another part of the village. This place which is situated in a dense forest between the mountains is called Dalikdash. It is home to rare species of birds, animals and plants included in the Soviet Red Book.

• Sabatkechmaz Fortress

It is located 2 km off Galakand. It is cal­led Sabatkechmaz or Govdu. It means a steep rock, a steep river bank, a hill and so on. It is a word of Turkic origin. The hill is shaped like a place for a small fortress.There is a building in a mountain forest away from the small fortress. For its type and structure, it looks like other Albanian monuments located here. The villagers call the one-cell monument an Albanian temple. They also say that it was a watc­htower and belongs to the early Middle Ages. Koroghlu Fortress can be clearly seen from this place.The fortress named after the people’s hero Koroghlu has been built on the ruins of Oghuz Fortress near Galakand, which belongs to the Bronze Age.

• Koroghlu Fortress (5th-7th centuries)

It is also called Javanshir Fortress. It is located 2,000 metres above sea level. In fact, it was a comfortable fortress and city in its time. Water was supplied to the fortress from afar by pipes made from clay. The remains of a two-source secret water tank and a wind mill inside the fortress are still intact. There were re­mains of double tandirs, a cave that co­uld house hundreds of sheep, as well as several ancient temples around the fort­ ress. At this fortress of Albanian origin, many coins, household utensils, spears, bows and arrow tips, as well as women’s jewels have been discovered.It is a monument belonging to the 5th- 7th centuries. It was built in the final days of Albanian rule by Varastirdat, the fart­her of the prince of the Girdman state, Javanshir. It is a huge defensive complex of strategic importance built on a ste­ep rock where the ruler and his famili­es and loved ones took refuge during an enemy attack. It is possible that the historical monument, which is regarded as a feudal fortification, was built in the 12th century. The belonging of the fort­ress to Javanshir and Koroghlu is expla­ined in the following way. Although as a historical monument, it belongs to the Albanian period, it was controlled by Ko­roghlu in the 16th-17th centuries. The­re are many places linked to Koroghlu’s name in Gadabay – the Koroghlu gorge, Mount Koroghlu and so on. It is believed that the fortress was one of Koroghlu’s main havens in Azerbaijan.

• Shir-Shir waterfall 

The waterfall is a must-see site in Gada­bay and is located in the district woods. You cannot see it because it is hidden behind trees. You can follow the sound of the water and find the waterfall in the rocky area. In summer, you can come across groups of men having a picnic with braziers. They drink and eat to the accompaniment of ashig music, raise to­asts and go under the waterfall when it is too hot. When they see an unknown woman, they run away and hide behind the rocks, which looks quite funny.

• Place-name

It is a combination of the words “gada” and “bay”. Gadabay used to be popula­ted by ancient Turkic tribes. Geographi­cal names derived from the words “kat” and “bak” exist in the Turkic states of Central Asia as well. Those places which include the ancient Turkish word “kat” had numerous gatehouses and look-out stations in order to protect the popula­tion from sudden enemy attacks. There are dozens of stories related to the name Gadabay. The Albanian historian Mukh­tar Gosh called Gadabay Getabey in his work “The Albanian Chronicle” (1206). It is believed that the word Gettabey de­formed later and turned into Gadabay. In the ancient Turkic language, it meant a great and powerful person.Due to its geographical terrain, it was a territory populated by bellicose Turkic tribes in the past. For this reason, in lite­rature the word Gadabay means a per­son you address or a courageous boy.The place name of Gadabay consists of the words gada – watchman and bak – hill in ancient Turkic and means a “watch hill”. This assumption is closer to reality.The ruins of Gadabay Fortress, which was first mentioned in historical sources in the 12th century, are located in the uphill area.According to another assumption, the word Dadabay deformed and turned into Gadabay. In the Middle Ages, some of these territories were divided by the Atabay, Shakarbay and Gadabay fathers and sons. Gadabay was the son of Ata­bay. The district still has villages called Atabay and Shakarbay.In connection with the word bak – hill, it is necessary to mention the Gadabay oi­konym as well. The word Gadabay con­sists of ket – watchman in ancient Turkic languages and bak – a hill in Turkic lan­guages and means a watchman.

• Siemens brothers in Gadabay

The Siemens brothers who came to Rus­sia in 1856 decided to build an India- Europe communication line. Since the line was to pass through the Caucasus, Walter Siemens went to Tehran to sign a contract. In order to build this line, a lot of copper and other metals were needed. The Siemens company reconstructed a local copper-smelting factory in 1856. However, the Siemens brothers did not restrict them only to this factory. They opened another copper-smelting factory in Galakand in 1883. They built a road and railway between Gadabay and Gala­kand, as well as a power station to smelt copper. Thus, Galakand products were exported to the international market. This factory was the largest in the Cauca­sus and the only one in Azerbaijan, and it produced one fourth of copper used in Russia. The Siemens company built the first hydroelectric power station in tsa­rist Russia in 1883. The copper-smelting factory in the village smelted copper by means of electrolysis. At a time when industrial cities of Europe like London, Paris and St Petersburg used kerosene lamps, Gadabay was already using elect­ricity. The Siemens brothers made a lot of money from the exploitation of cop­per mines here. Some people think that apart from copper, they secretly took 57 tonnes of silver and 3 tonnes of gold to Germany. After the Socialist Revolution, the new authorities failed to operate the copper-smelting factories, which is why the whole business collapsed. After a long break, the mines started operating again at the end of the 20th century. This time gold extraction in Gadabay was handed over to the British.

• Novosaratovka village

The first Russians came to Gadabay in 1831. Twelve exiled Molokan families settled in the village of Novosaratovka. It is interesting that the Russians living here speak Azerbaijani with a Gada­bay accent. The architectural structure and lifestyle of Molokan villages is so different that anyone who comes here forgets that they are in Azerbaijan. The Russians have maintained their customs, cuisine and music. They get together to play the accordion, sing chastushkas and dance. When someone comes here, they turn on classical Russian baths and bat­he the guests with their famous brooms. In summer, it is possible to rent a house and stay in Saratovka.

• On the cross

The famous researcher and journalist, Murad Aji, proposes some interesting ideas about the history of the cross. Ac­cording to his study, the cross existed in the pre-Christian period. Based on vario­us sources, the author travelled extensi­vely in Turkic-populated areas and made notes on the cross. Although the Chris­tian religious was officially dominant in Caucasian Albania in the 4th century, crosses were not used, while pagan Kipc­hak Turks used the cross in their religio­us rituals in the first century. Almost all historical monuments on the territory of Gadabay, including all tombstones, have crosses of various sizes and forms. The­se are symbols that local people used in their religious rituals in ancient times.

• Slavyanka village

Slavyanka is a picturesque village at the entrance to Gadabay. Resembling Russi­an fairy tales with its colored wood and classical houses, Slavyanka is known for its yellow raspberries and raspberry jam. This sort of berry grows only in this villa­ge in Azerbaijan. Its previous name was Gizilja. The village is regarded as a resort. While the temperatures reach 40 degre­es in the town in the heat of summer, the temperatures here do not rise above 18- 20 degrees. In July, mountain slopes are full of poppies. New hotels near mineral springs in Slavyanka and in the upper and lower parts of the village are open in summer

The villagers in Slavyanka live side by side with 1,000-year-old historical monuments. Huge tombstones in the an­ient Oghuz graveyard draw attention. Villagers say that foreigners who came here in previous centuries searched the graveyard for treasures and took away the treasures they dug out of barrows. The territory where no scientific research has been carried out is rich in ancient fortresses and temples belonging to Og­huz tribes.

• Tala Church

It is an ancient church located in a fo­rest in the upper part of the district in an area called Tala. There are various deep dents on the monument which is hidden behind trees. It is believed that tunnels going in different directions were built here. They say that it used to be a prayer room.

• Boyuk Garamurad village

The village is situated at the foot of Mount Shahdaghh on the bank of the Garamurad River. The name of this population centre with a perfect view is un­derstood to mean a great and brave per­son. In 1888-1891, the German scientist Waldemar Belk carried out archaeologi­cal excavations on the territory of Gara­murad. He opened ancient graves and found gold, silver and bronze jewels and weapons inside. He made a list of things found in the graves and took all of them to Germany. Now those documents and things are kept at the Berlin Museum.

• Galakand

Galakand is located at the foot of Mount Shahdagh on the bank of the Shamkir River. The place is interpreted as a noisy roadside place. Gala is also the name of a Kipchak tribe.The village, which is situated too far from the town in the mountains and dense forests, is a real ethnic museum. There are 11 monasteries in Galakand alone. Almost all homes in the village have medieval maps. A villager discovered a big piece of concrete as he tried to plant potatoes in his courtyard. It was a big tombstone with big and decorative cros­ses and inscriptions in an ancient alpha­bet. Getting a shovel and digging out works left over from the antique period is regarded as normal here. A resident of the village, Bakir Mammadov, has collec­ted all the ancient things he has found in the area. As we entered his house, we thought that we were in a history and ethnography museum. Jugs of various sizes, ceramic dishes, various metal co­ins, jewels and all types of spears, knives and weapons are available there.

• Small fortresses

There are 30 small fortresses in Gadabay. These small fortresses, built from huge stones weighing about one ton, are of strategic importance. They are called Oghuz fortresses. Members of the an­cient Turkic tribe who built the small fortresses were tall and fit-looking. This is proved by the size of the tombs. The small fortresses are defensive look-out stations. They were used for reconnais­sance purposes and served as centres of communication for big fortresses. Unli­ke the fortresses located on the heights, the small fortresses were built from large rocks. Those killed in action were buried in the same territory

• Who is Koroghlu?

Koroghlu is a mystical people’s hero for all Turkic peoples. In the 16th-17th cen­turies, the Ottoman Empire and many parts of Azerbaijan were engulfed in a peasant movement. One of these pea­sant uprisings was led by Koroghlu. Le­gend has it that Koroghlu’s real name was Rovshan. His father Ali had his eyes put out. Exasperated by the condition of his father who had his eyes put out on orders from the monarch, Rovshan chose the nickname Koroghlu (blind man’s son) and started fighting injusti­ce. There is little information in written sources about Koroghlu and his com­panions. Some researchers say that Ko­roghlu operated in Anatolia, while most of them say in Azerbaijan. Stories about Koroghlu’s name are collected in the Koroghlu epos. Koroghlu, who stood out for his bravery and courage in figh­ting, is a friend of the poor, an enemy of oppressors and a people’s hero.